In 1880, Tschaikowsky composed the ‘Capriccio Italien, Opus 45’, as a fantasy for orchestra. He was inspired by a trip he took to Rome, during which he saw the Carnival in full swing, and is reminiscent of Italian folk music and street songs. As these elements are treated rather freely initially he intended this piece to be called ‘Italian Fantasia’. Tschaikowsky even uses as the introduction a bugle call that he overheard from his hotel played by Italian cavalry regiment. Even nowadays, ‘Capriccio Italien’ is still one of Tschaikowsky most popular compositions.